Species & Applications Of Solvents
There're many varieties of solvent, according to their chemical composition and sources, that can be divided into the following categories:
1. Terpene solvent: the vast majority of pine secretions. Commonly used turpentine, pine oil and so on. The solubility of turpentine resin to natural resin and resin is greater than that of ordinary banana water, less than benzene. The evaporation rate is moderate, in line with paint brushing and drying requirements.
2. Petroleum solvents; such solvents are hydrocarbons. Is derived from the fractionation of oil. Commonly used in gasoline, pine, water, kerosene and so on. Gasoline volatile speed, high risk, under normal circumstances not to be used as solvents. Rosin water is commonly used in paint solvents, which is characterized by less toxicity, generally used in oil paint and magnetic paint.
3. Coal solvent: This kind of solvent also belongs to hydrocarbon. Is derived from coal dry distillation. Commonly used benzene, toluene, xylene and so on. Soluble ability of benzene is very strong, is a natural dry oil, resin strong solvent, can not dissolve shellac, but toxic, volatile fast, paint is not commonly used, generally as detergent; , Mainly as alkyd solvent, can also be used as epoxy resin, paint and other thinner, a small amount used in detergents; xylene slightly lower than the solubility of toluene, volatile than toluene slow toxicity than benzene, Can be used as a strong solvent instead of rosin.
4. Lipid solvents: low-carbon organic acid and alcohol conjugate, commonly used are butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, such as fat. Acetic acid, butadiene resin is less toxic, generally used in painting, easy construction, but also can prevent the precipitation of resin and nitrocellulose; Ethyl acetate dissolving power than butyl resin is good, often in the acetic acid butyl resin used in wood nitrocellulose lacquer; Fat slowly, used in fiber paint can improve dryness and whitening.
5. ketone solvent: it is an organic solvent, mainly used to dissolve nitrocellulose. Commonly used C, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isopropyl ketone, cyclohexanone, methyl ketone and so on. Strong dissolution of acetone, the evaporation rate can be dissolved in any proportion of water, so easy to dry paint leaving the paint dry, crust. Generally combined with slow evaporation of the solvent. Most used in painting, fast-drying adhesive. Methyl ethyl ketone than acetone slow evaporation, poor dissolution of the tip, can be used alone; methyl isopropyl acetone high dissolving power, moderate volatile, to prevent the film whitening ability is very strong; Cyclohexanone (ketone ketone), acetone is easy to burn, Volatile slow, good solubility, can make the paint film in the drying to form a smooth and smooth surface, to prevent the generation of air bubbles.
6. Alcohol solvent: It is an organic solvent, mixed with water, commonly used ethanol, butanol and so on. Alcohol solvents on the paint dissolution is poor, can only dissolve shellac or butyral resin. When used with lipids, ketone solvents used in conjunction with, can increase its solubility, so called nitrocellulose lacquer. Ethanol can not dissolve the general resin, and can dissolve ethyl fiber, shellac and so on. Can also be used to produce alcohol varnish, wood stains, washing primer. Butanol slightly lower than the solubility of ethanol, volatile slowly, similar to the nature of ethanol. Commonly used with ethanol, to prevent the film white, eliminate pinholes, orange peel, bubbles and other defects. The special effect of butanol is to prevent the gelatinization of the paint, reduce the viscosity at the same time can also be used as amino resin solvent.
7. Other solvents: commonly used with chlorinated solvents, nitrifying alkane solvents, ether alcohol solvent. Chlorinated solvents dissolve very strong, but toxic, but in some special sum paint remover used; nitrane solvent evaporation rate and butyl acetate is about the same, while the solvent can be hungry nitrocellulose; ether alcohols Solvent is a new solvent, ether glycol, methyl ether glycol and its lipid and so on. Commonly used in cotton paint, phenolic resin paint and epoxy paint.